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The concerted effort undertaken by multiple players, the availability of funding, the cross-boarder and interdisciplinary cooperation and the global awareness that have been connected with this epidemic are unparalleled. Globalization has affected both the spread of the disease and our collective response to the epidemic. The papers draw on a wide range of disciplinary perspectives from broad socio-political analysis to on-the-ground epidemiology, covering important developments in both theory and practice.
Content type: Commentary. Worldwide, far more people migrate within than across borders, and although internal migrants do not risk a loss of citizenship, they frequently confront significant social, financial and health consequences, Citation: Globalization and Health 5 Content type: Debate. In a recent issue of Globalization and Health, Yu et al. This editorial considers their position and confirms that the former actually supports t Authors: Gorik Ooms. Citation: Globalization and Health 4 This article examines and assesses Increasing access to antiretroviral therapy ART is a critical goal endorsed by the United Nations and all of its member states.
At the same time, anecdotal accounts suggest that the promotion of unproven AID The new level of well-being was felt by only a small number of Member States, where the "golden billion" lived, he said. If present conditions prevailed, the gaps between poverty and wealth would continue to grow. There was need to rebuild the entire contemporary architecture of international economic relations.
Countries with economies in transition were determined to end poverty and ensure employment and integration, but their efforts were not being met with appropriate responses from the international community and the international financial institutions, he said. The Secretary-General's report noted the deterioration of the social and economic situation facing such countries, but failed to address what was needed to help those countries.
Few States had gone through so many trials in the past century as had the Russian Federation, he said. The Government had begun elaborating a long-term national strategy for economic and social development. The main task was to achieve economic growth in conditions of stability.
Ensuring human rights and freedom was vital for ongoing and gradual social and economic development. The Copenhagen Declaration provided important guidelines in developing policy. The Government was determined to continue increasing budget allocations for social protections and to support culture, education and health care.
Globalization and disease
It recognized the need to decrease the "shadow economy" and limit crime, but only through joint efforts would real answers be found. Concerted efforts should be strengthened to realize human potential and improve livelihoods through the protection of human life and dignity. To that end, his country had established a human security fund. He also pointed to the importance of establishing effective partnerships to achieve social development. While the primary responsibility for achieving that goal lay with the individual State, a partnership was needed involving civil society, non-governmental organizations, volunteers, as well as among United Nations bodies and other relevant regional and international organizations.
The Secretary-General had referred to the progress made in establishing those partnerships and he believed that efforts to enhance it in all fields should be further encouraged during the review process at the upcoming special session. The Government placed special emphasis on employment and it was aiming at a gradual transfer in implementing relevant measures, such as pension reform and a policy to generate employment by stimulating private enterprise and entrepreneurship. She stated that to ensure full employment for the population, the Government had created reliable conditions for a labour market and training programmes, supported people-owned businesses to generate self-reliance and introduced tax advantages.
During the period of economic transformation, the people were suffering serious social losses; real income had fallen and savings had become depleted. She expressed regret that the analysis on the section of the report that contained her country had only mentioned internal State problems and did not refer to the fact that globalization had also had an adverse effect on social development policies and initiatives.
The Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action had recognized that the ILO had a special role to play in the field of employment and social development, and requested it to contribute to the implementation of the Programme of Action. In doing so, the ILO had developed activities at the operational, research and policy levels that it would put at the disposal of the Commission, as input for its deliberations.
Since the Social Summit, the ILO had intensified its efforts to help governments in formulating and implementing comprehensive employment strategies, he continued. It had provided technical assistance on implementing core labour conventions and in designing and extending social safety nets, including to the informal sector. Concomitantly, steps had been taken to increase awareness among ILO's tripartite constituents of the challenges and opportunities offered by globalization and a knowledge-based economy, both for creating new and better jobs, and for designing new approaches to overcome social exclusion.
The ILO had launched a global programme on decent work, to reduce poverty and promote social integration through the incorporation of employment concerns with broader economic and social policies. Its objectives were: employment creation; promotion of human rights at work; improving social protection; and promoting social dialogue. While those were areas of the ILO's work, what was required was an integrated approach involving collaboration between the ILO and its partners in the United Nations and the international community. The ILO would seek the collaboration of its international partners, including non-governmental organizations for implementing further initiatives in connection with the implementation of the outcome of the Summit.
In , 5. That was a higher global total than any year since the epidemic started. Overall, The spread of the AIDS epidemic had imposed heavy burdens of poverty and ill-health in countries of eastern and southern Africa.
Life expectancy in southern Africa had risen to 59 years by the early s, but due to AIDS it was expected to decline to 45 years between and As the Secretary- General stated in December , AIDS was far more than a health problem; it was a threat to human civilization as a whole. That was why it must be at the heart of the development agenda.
MARY MILLER, International Federation for Home Economics, noted that the mainstreaming of family issues remained vital and plans for the special session should include the key goals, including: advocating the eradication of poverty so that disadvantaged families would be a priority of social development policies; and urging that basic family income be earned through freely chosen employment. Progress to reach those goals had been erratic and slow.
Social development priorities must remain central to all development strategies, through the use of a broad, holistic, multi-pronged approach. On one side are most mainstream economists, international institutions such as the United Nations and the World Bank, most finance ministers and central bank governors in poor and rich nations alike, and most professional students of development.
On the other side of the debate are most social activists, members of nonprofit civil society groups who work on environmental issues, human rights, and relief programs, most of the popular press, and many sensible, well-educated observers. To them, the issue seems self-evident. Globalization may be good for the rich countries and the rich within countries, but it is bad news for the poorest countries and especially for the poor in those countries. One central issue is whether the current distribution of economic and political power in the world is just or fair—whether it provides for equal opportunities to those who are poor and, in global affairs, relatively powerless.
On this score, I believe it is time for the first group to internalize the arguments of the second and recognize the need for an improved global politics, in which more democratic and legitimate representation of the poor and the disenfranchised in managing the global economy mediates the downside of more integrated and productive global markets. Most developing countries began to be tied into the world economy only in the s. Before that, although they participated in some multilateral trade agreements, special preferences permitted them to protect their own markets.
In the s, however, and increasingly in the s, most developing countries took steps to open and liberalize their markets. In addition to reducing and eliminating tariffs and nontariff barriers, they made fiscal and monetary reforms, privatized and deregulated their economies, eliminated interest rate ceilings, and, in the s, opened capital markets—a package that came to be known as the Washington Consensus.
These market reforms and accompanying, often socially painful, structural changes were encouraged and supported by the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the U. The increasing reliance on markets in the developing world and, in the s, in the countries of the former Soviet empire is with good reason seen as part and parcel of globalization. And because of the conditioned loans, many opponents of globalization today see the turn to the market—and thus to global capitalism—as imposed on the developing countries.
Ironically, the loans often were disbursed even when agreed conditions were not implemented.
With the growing influence of markets in the past two decades have come changes in global inequality and world poverty. Over the past century, global inequality by most measures has been growing. At the end of the 19th century, the ratio of the average income of the richest to the poorest country in the world was 9 to 1. Today the average family in the United States is 60 times richer than the average family in Ethiopia or Bangladesh in terms of purchasing power.
The increase in inequality is the result of a simple reality. Poorer countries, poor to start with, have grown little if at all. In the past two decades, the picture has changed a bit. Some developing countries, including China and more recently India, have grown faster than the already rich countries. Incomes in China and India will not soon equal those in rich countries—it would take them almost a century of faster growth even to reach current U. Still, some developing countries have done some dramatic catching up. And the rapid growth in India and China has caused world poverty to decline.
The decline was concentrated in India and China; elsewhere in the developing world, numbers rose. Although today the richest fifth of world households is about 25 times richer than the poorest fifth, in the past 20 years the rapid growth of India and China has slowed increases in world inequality. The world distribution of course gives much greater weight to these high-population countries. At the world level, then, it is fair to say that poverty is declining and inequality is not increasing. Historically, that included Japan, beginning in the Meiji era between and , the poorer countries of Western Europe during the 19th century and then again after World War II, and the so-called miracle economies of East Asia between about and Poverty remains highest in the countries, including many in Africa and some in South Asia, and among people, especially in the rural areas of China, India, and Latin America, that are marginal to global markets.
But unable to diversify into manufacturing despite reducing their own import tariffs , they have seen the relative world prices of their commodity exports fall—and have been left behind. Despite rising exports, tariff reductions, and market-oriented reforms including greater fiscal and monetary discipline and the divestiture of unproductive state enterprises, they have been unable to increase their export income, failed to attract foreign investment, and grown little if at all.
For these countries, despite efforts by their governments to enter global markets, globalization has not worked. Success in global markets might come with success in growth and development itself, but it is not likely to come on its own.
For better-off emerging market economies, globalization has failed to work in a second way. For them global trade has been generally a boon, but global financial markets pretty much a bust. In the past decade, Mexico, Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Russia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Turkey, and this year Argentina, were all hit by financial crises triggered or made worse by their exposure to global financial markets.
Weak local financial markets and wary local and foreign creditors made these countries highly vulnerable to the panicked withdrawal of capital typical of bank runs. And the resulting financial instability was especially costly for the working poor and the emerging middle class. In Turkey, Argentina, and Mexico, hit repeatedly by inflation and currency devaluations in the past two decades, wealthy citizens move substantial financial assets abroad, often simultaneously acquiring bank and corporate debt that is then socialized and paid by taxpayers, worsening inequality—and certainly appearing unfair.
HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa : politics, aid and globalization in SearchWorks catalog
In parts of Asia and much of Latin America, inequality had already increased during the mids boom as portfolio inflows and high bank lending fueled demand for assets, such as land and stocks, owned by the rich. In both regions the poor and working class gained the least during the boom and then lost the most, certainly relative to their most basic needs, in the post-crisis bust. The high interest rates that the affected countries used to stabilize their currencies also hurt most small capital-starved enterprises and their low-wage employees.